# Circuits & Networks - [2130901]

#### Teaching Scheme

 Theory Tutorial Practical Total 4 0 2 6

#### Examination Scheme

 Theory Examination Practical Examination Total ESE (E) PA (M) ESE Viva (V) PA (I) 70 30 30 20 150

ESE = End Semester Examination, PA = Progressive Assessment

#### Circuit Variables and Circuit Elements and Sources

E.M.F, Potential and Potential Difference, Current and Current Density, Ideal and Practical Voltage and Current Sources. Conversion from one source into other. Internal Impedance of voltage and current source relative to load. Two-terminal Capacitance – Two-terminal Inductance- Independent and Dependent Electrical Sources –Power and Energy Relations for Two-terminal Elements – Classification of Two-terminal Elements – Multi-terminal Circuit Elements, Dot Convention.

#### Nodal Analysis and Mesh Analysis of resistive Circuits

Nodal Analysis of Circuits Containing Resistors and Independent and Dependent Sources – Source Transformation Theorem for circuits with independent sources – Source Transformation Theorem for circuits with Dependent sources –Nodal Analysis of Circuits Containing Dependent Sources - Mesh Analysis of Circuits with Resistors and Independent Voltage Sources- Mesh Analysis of Circuits with Independent Sources - Mesh Analysis of Circuits Containing Dependent Sources.

#### Circuit Theorems and Their Application in Electric Networks

Linearity of a Circuit and Superposition Theorem-Substitution Theorem-Compensation Theorem - Thevenin's Theorem and Norton's Theorem -Determination of Equivalents for Circuits with Dependent Sources -Reciprocity Theorem - Maximum Power Transfer Theorem - Millman's Theorem-Duality Theorem-Duality between Electricity and Magnetism

#### Time domain response of First order RL and RC circuits

Mathematical preliminaries – Source free response –DC response of first order circuits – Superposition and linearity – Response Classifications – First order RC Op Amp Circuits.

#### Time domain response of Second order linear circuits

Discharging of a Capacitor through an inductor – Source free second order linear networks – second order linear networks with constant inputs.

#### Initial Conditions

Initial conditions in elements, procedure for evaluating initial conditions, Solution of circuit equations by using Initial Conditions.

#### Laplace Transform Analysis and Circuit Applications

Notions of Impedance and Admittance – Manipulation of Impedance and Admittance- Notions of Transfer Function- Equivalent circuits for inductors and capacitors – Nodal and Loop analysis in the s-domain – Switching in RLC circuits- Switched capacitor circuits and conservation of charge

#### Laplace Transform Analysis and Transfer Function Applications

Poles, Zeros and the s-plane- Classification of Responses – Computation of sinusoidal steady state response for stable networks and systems.

#### Two –Port Networks

One port networks – Two port admittance Parameters (y parameters)– Admittance parameters analysis of terminated two- Port networks - Two port impedance Parameters (z-parameters) –Impedance and Gain calculations of terminated two- Port networks modeled by z-parameters – Hybrid parameters (h para)– Inverse Hybrid Parameters (g-para)- Transmission parameters (ABCD parameters)-Scattering parameters(S parameters)-Scattering Transfer parameters(T parameters) –reciprocity-Various Combinations of Two-Port network-Various Combinations of Two port n/w.

#### Introduction to Network Topology

Linear Oriented Graphs (Connected Graph, Subgraphs and Some Special Subgraphs) - The Incidence Matrix of a Linear Oriented Graph -Kirchhoff's Laws in Incidence Matrix Formulation - Nodal Analysis of Networks – The Circuit Matrix of a Linear Oriented Graph- Kirchhoff's Laws in Fundamental Circuit Matrix Formulation - Loop Analysis of Electrical Networks – ( Loop Analysis of Networks Containing Ideal Dependent Sources- Planar Graphs and Mesh Analysis –Duality)- The Cut-set Matrix of a Linear Oriented Graph ( Cut-sets - The All cut-set matrix Qa- Orthogonality relation between Cut-set matrix and Circuit matrix - The Fundamental Cut-set Matrix Qf - Relation between Qf , A and Bf) - Kirchhoff's Laws in Fundamental Cut-set formulation - Tie set -Tie set Matrix (F-loop matrix)- Tie set schedule.

#### Introduction to Passive Network Synthesis

Introduction of Hurwitz Polynomial, Positive Real Function (PRF), Elementary Synthesis Procedure.

#### Reference Books

1Network Analysis & SynthesisFranklin S. KUOWiley Publication
2Network AnalysisM.E Van ValkenburgPHI Publication
3Electric Circuits and NetworksK. S. Suresh KumarPearson Education
4Linear Circuits AnalysisDeCarlo/ LinOxford University Press(Indian edition)
5Engineering Circuit AnalysisW H Hayt, J E Kemmerly, S M DurbinTMH Publication
6Graphs: Theory and AlgorithmsK. Thulasiraman, m.n.s SwamyWiley Publication
7Electric Circuit AnalysisS N SivanandamVikas Publishing House
8Introductory Circuit AnalysisRobert BoylestadPearson

#### Course Outcome

1.To apply various circuit laws like Ohm’s Law, KVL, KCL, etc.
2. To apply dot convention technique for analysis of transformer based circuits.
3. To apply node and mesh circuit analysis techniques..
4. To apply various network theorems such as Superposition, Thevenin, Norton, Reciprocity, Maximum Power Transfer, Millman's Theorem,     etc..
5. To analyze behavior of passive circuits such as RC, RL and RLC.
6. To apply Laplace Transform for circuit analysis.
7. To obtain transfer function of a network.
8. To analyze circuit taking into account initial conditions.
9. To calculate two port parameters such as y, z, h, ABCD, etc. for the given two port network.
10. To understand basics of network topologies and the tieset and cutset schedules.
11. To understand basics of network synthesis from the transfer function.