# Antenna & Wave Propagation - [2161003]

#### Teaching Scheme

 Theory Tutorial Practical Total 4 0 2 6

#### Examination Scheme

 Theory Examination Practical Examination Total ESE (E) PA (M) ESE Viva (V) PA (I) 70 30 30 20 150

ESE = End Semester Examination, PA = Progressive Assessment

#### Basic antenna concepts:

Definition and functions of an antenna, comparison between an antenna & transmission line, radio communication link with transmitting antenna and a receiving antenna, radiation patterns of antennas-field and power patterns, all antenna types.

Potential functions and the electromagnetic field, Oscillating electric dipole- derivations for E and H field components in spherical coordinate systems, Power Radiated by a current element, Application to antennas, Radiation from quarter wave monopole and half wave dipoles, Derivation for radiation resistance, application of reciprocity theorem to antennas, equality of directional patterns and effective lengths of transmitting and receiving antennas, directional properties of dipole antennas, antenna feeding methods.

#### Antenna parameters and definitions:

Beam area, beam width- Half-Power Beam width (HPBW)and First Null Beam width(FNBW) ,Polarisation, Radiation Intensity ,Beam Efficiency, Directivity and directive gain, radiation resistance, radiation efficiency, resolution, Antenna aperture-physical and effective apertures, effective height, transmission formula, antenna field zones, Transmission loss as a function of frequency. Antenna temperature and signal to noise ratio.

#### Arrays of point sources :

Expression for electric fields from two, three and N element arrays- linear arrays: Broad-side array and End-Fire array- Method of pattern multiplication- Binomial array-Horizontal and Vertical Antennas above the ground plane, Effect of ground on ungrounded antenna, Schelkunoff theorems for linear arrays, Dolph-Tchebysheff distribution for linear arrays.

#### Loop Antenna:

Small loop short magnetic dipole, comparison of far field of small loop and short dipole loop antennas, field pattern of circular loop antenna & radiation resistance of loop antenna, directivity of circular loop antennas with uniform current.

#### Helical antenna:

Helical geometry, transmission radiation modes, practical design considerations, wide band characteristics of helical antenna.

#### Arrays of dipoles & apertures:

3 element dipole Array with parasitic elements, Yagi-Uda array-function and its design, Phased arrays, frequency scanning arrays, smart antennas, long wire antennas, location methods of feeding antennas, folded dipole antennas, matching arrangements.

#### Reflector antennas:

Parabolic reflector, paraboloidal reflector, aperture Pattern of large circular apertures with uniform illumination, off axis operation of paraboloidal reflectors, Cassegrain feed system.

#### Slot patch & Horn antennas:

Slot antenna, its pattern, Babinet’s principle and complementary antennas, impedance of slot antennas, and horn antenna-function and types.

#### Microstrip ( patch) antennas :

Rectangular and circular types-function, features analysis ,design considerations and applications

#### Lens antennas:

Non-metallic Dielectric lens and artificial dielectric lens antennas, reflector lens antennas.

#### Broadband & Freq. Independent antennas:

Broadband antenna, Frequency independent antenna, log periodic antennas.

#### Antennas for special applications:

Antennas design consideration for satellite communication, antenna for terrestrial mobile communication systems, GPR, Embedded antennas, UWB, Plasma antenna.

#### Antennas measurements:

Experimental set ups for measurement of radiation patterns, gain, phase polarization, terminal impedance.

Modes of propagation, Ground Wave Propagation, Structure of troposphere and ionosphere, Characteristic of Ionospheric layers, Sky wave propagation, Definitions for Virtual height, MUF and Skip distance, OWF, Fading, ionospheric absorptions, Multi-hop propagation, Space wave propagation and Super refraction.

#### Course Outcome

Course Outcome:
After learning the course the students should be able to:
1. Explain the radiation through antenna and identify different types of antennas.
2. Identify and measure the basic antenna parameters
3. Design and analyze wire and aperture antennas
4. Design and analyze matching and feeding networks for antennas
5. Design and analyze antenna arrays
6. Identify the characteristics of radio-wave propagation

Nail is still a very popular fashion replica handbags uk in autumn and gucci replica . The furry design on the hermes replica of the bag makes this autumn and handbags replica. Xiaobian likes the buckle like sapphire and looks quite replica handbags .